Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8624 Spring 2022-23
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Course: Educational Assessment and Evaluation (8624)
Semester: Spring, 2022-23
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 Highlight the importance of secondary education in Pakistan. And explain the specific objectives if secondary, elementary and special education.
The right to education is enshrined within the Constitution of Pakistan. Article 25-A Pakistan states: “The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of five to sixteen years in such manner as may be determined by law. Following the 18th amendment, education has largely become a provincial rather than a national issue, and each province has made progress in developing reforms to their respective education systems. However, implementation of these reforms has remained a huge challenge. There is no doubt that steps have also been taken to strengthen the facilities and services for primary, middle and secondary schools, as well as an admirable effort directed towards the expansion of non-formal education. Unfortunately, major issues and challenges continue to hinder the end goals of these initiatives from being achieved.
Some statics on the state of education in Pakistan
To share a few examples of the obstacles faced, the population of Pakistan has reached 208 million individuals as of 2018. 38% of this population currently lives below the poverty line (Jamal, 2017), while 43% of the adult population (i.e. aged 15 and above) remains illiterate. For portion of adults mentioned, the percentage can be further broken down to reveal a substantial gender gap wherein 51% of adult women compared to 30% of men are illiterate(AEPAM, 2016). Several other factors also directly affect the state of education in the country. A low annual education budget, over 90% of which goes for teacher and administrative salaries, is one example. Poor infrastructure that hampers productive learning environments, poor teaching and learning resources, and an assessment structure that operates in non-native languages are several more. Further insights into statistics on the matter paint a grim picture on the country’s aspiration of education for all. For instance, there are 51.17 million children in Pakistan between the ages of 5 -16 years out of which nearly 23 million are categorized as out of school (Khan, 2017). There is also a shortage of schools, wherein for every 13 primary schools, there is only 1 middle school (“National Education Policy”, 2017). Finally, there is a shortage of teachers — around 50% of primary schools in Sindh and Balochistan and 29% in Pakistan as a whole have only one teacher (“Pakistan Education Statistics”, 2017). When it comes to the quality of education and learning outcomes of students, the numbers are even more distressing. For grade 5 students, 44% of school children cannot read a story fluently either in Urdu or provincial languages. 48% cannot read a sentence fluently in English, while 49% cannot carry out simple two-digit division.
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Improving student learning is one of the key outcomes that all stakeholders of an education system should focus on. A good understanding of student learning is important for teachers, so they can focus their efforts on key areas that need to be improved and enhance teaching-learning practices in the classroom. Examination and assessment data is also useful for policymakers to understand what factors hinder effective learning, to inform future policies. In addition, examinations are used to signal student performance for admission to higher studies and for the job market. A sound assessment and examination system is thus integral to a good education system.
The education system in Pakistan is categorized as primary (grade 1-5), middle (grade 6-8), secondary (grade 9-10) higher secondary (grade 11-12) tertiary education. Those entering secondary and higher secondary education go through high-stake examinations conducted by a Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education (BISE). The secondary school education system, particularly exams, plays a major role in both teaching and learning attitudes that affect the entire system. If assessment and examinations are not aligned with the curriculum and continue to focus on textbook based examination (i.e. memorizing the content of the textbook), then eventually assessment starts to drive learning and has a trickle-down effect on the entire education system.
There are currently 29 government run BISE bodies in Pakistan (Sindh, Punjab, Balochistan, KPK, and a Federal Board), along with one private, local board (Aga Khan University Examination Board), and two foreign boards (Cambridge Assessment and the International Baccalaureate system).Teachers follow the pattern set by various BISE bodies, and as such most are preparing students to rote learn as they know that the students will be tested on their ability to memorize. This directly leads to student’s own learning attitudes becoming a lifelong behavior. It is worth noting that out of the total body of students set to take their secondary or higher secondary examinations, over 90% are doing so in government schools that follows various BISE curriculums.
In this regard, government BISE bodies are widely criticized for not aligning their examinations with the National Curriculum of Pakistan — although the National Curriculum of 2006 is based on learning outcomes, many BISE bodies are still following 2002 curriculum. Another practice that has come under scrutiny is their inability to assess higher order learning, as well as a propensity to drive students to rote learn, rather than understand and apply concepts. Several studies conducted at both a national and international level (Rind, 2017), (Awan, Aslam, Muzaffar, Khan, & Rashid, 2016), (Burdett, 2017) have shown poor quality of examination questions concentrated at the knowledge rather than application level that are also frequently repeated over the years.
Furthermore, while there are major issues in quality of examination papers, there is also a lack of compatibility between grades/marks and student’s demonstrated skills, which directly impacts how the public views both the methods and validity of assessment. Meanwhile, rampant malpractice and cheating in examinations make the system unreliable and unfair for all. Through such poor practices, the system loses credibility for the qualification it offers and does not prepare students for higher learning. These students also face challenges for admission into university, as they are unable to clear the entrance exams.
To summarize: This is the harsh reality that we live in. While poverty and adult illiteracy hampers the progress to provide basic education, the quality of education and assessment is another major battle that Pakistan faces. To say that the education system of Pakistan is fraught with considerable challenges would not be accurate. Rather, it is necessary to be blunt and say that Pakistan continues to face an educational crisis.
Put together, these statistics and facts are reflective of two central issues at the heart of Pakistan’s educational crisis: Firstly, existing educational paradigms are failing our students. Secondly, there is an understandable deficit in the faith and trust that the public places in the education system, considering that the statistics suggest most students lack an understanding rudimentary linguistic or mathematical practice.
The Way Forward
It would, however, be wrong to conclude on a note of despair. There is hope that the system could improve if certain measures are taken. Considering that 33% of all education in Pakistan is provided by the private sector, it is in the direct interest of the government to foster public-private partnerships aimed at bolstering the existing public educational framework.
In this regard, I would like to give seven recommendations that focus primarily on secondary education and more specifically on BISE bodies; not only relevant to our context but also achievable, which are as follows.
Recommendation One: Support Teaching And Learning
Intuitively, the first step towards building better education system in Pakistan is supporting academia. This can be accomplished primarily by following the National Curriculum of Pakistan and developing syllabi based on it. The syllabi should be equipped to make use of achievable Student Learning Outcomes (SLOs), which clearly define what a student’s takeaway from each topic on any given subject should be. The syllabus, thus, serves as a guide for both students and teachers to determine what material they must cover as part of their learning and prevents reliance on a single textbook. Moreover, this measure allows for a fully transparent playing field that charts a complete course of studies, ensuring students will always be aware of what material they will be assessed on.
Recommendation Two: Ensure Quality Of Examinations
To ensure quality of examination papers, a quality assurance process of examination development is necessary. This process should ensure the complete alignment with the syllabus, and guarantee fairness and a linear increase in difficulty during the development of papers themselves. Processes must be developed to ensure the examination is measuring a student’s ability beyond knowledge such as understanding of the concepts, its application, problem solving etc. Frequent repetition of the same questions over the years, allows a space for student to rote learn responses; therefore, this practice should be minimized. Furthermore, it is imperative to ensure that there is fairness to the entire student body in the construction of examinations, meaning that the diverse backgrounds and circumstances faced by students are considered. For instance, if students from urban cities tend to outperform students from rural regions, it is unfair to construct examinations that may pose more of a challenge to the former at the risk of unfairly putting the latter at a significant disadvantage.
Recommendation Three: Ensure Quality Of Assessment Data
Just as there is a need to ensure quality in exam construction, there is a need to ensure quality of assessment data for a reliable, valid and fair assessment, too. This is primarily accomplished through an extensive psychometric analysis that looks at response of each examination items to strengthen the quality assurance process. For this purpose, rubrics or standardized marking scheme for awarding marks should be established for each paper to reduce the influence of personal biases on the part of examiners and ensures uniformity in the level of understanding about how to award marks regardless of whom happens to be grading the examination papers. A thorough post-exam analysis must also be conducted to determine trends in scores, item behavior to ensure standardization before disseminating the results.
Recommendation Four: Ensure Fairness And Transparency In The Conduct Of Examinations
Impersonation, cheating, and leakage of examination papers threaten the fair and transparent conduct of examination — technology can be utilized to combat them. For example, CCTV monitoring of examination halls can go a long way towards preventing cheating or improper conduct of examinations, and further instill a sense of there being zero tolerance towards any type of unfair practices. There is also a need to properly train and support both supervisors and invigilators in the conduct of examinations, allowing for more experienced individuals to oversee their conduct. Such good practices not only create public confidence, but also give credibility to the qualification/certification.
Recommendation Five: Improve The Quality Of Teaching And Learning
While supporting teaching and learning is necessary, it is also important to emphasize that both processes can be continually iterated and improved on. One of the key ways to do this is for examination bodies to provide regular feedback to schools in the form of comprehensive, systematic analysis of school achievements and results. This feedback could potentially compare the performance of each school with others and offer an interpretation of these results along with suggestions on areas where the school might be able to improve. Collectively, data from multiple schools could also be relevant to larger education departments as it illustrates trends in both student understanding as well as teacher performance across a wide selection of schools.
Recommendation Six: Build Engaging Classrooms Through Teacher Support
Since teachers play a pivotal role in translating the set curriculum within the classroom to achieve learning outcomes, there must be an ongoing support provided to teachers that should be focused on content and pedagogical approaches. This includes learning through classroom observation to identify areas where a teacher’s approach can be learned from or, alternatively, improved. Emphasis must also be placed on developing engaging and interactive classrooms that increase student interest and participation in the subject matter, which directly affects students’ learning and performance on examinations.
Recommendation Seven: Make Informed Decisions
A large amount of data acquired through assessment is a good source of conducting quantitative research to develop insights into how both students and teachers approach learning. This evidence-based classroom research data can be utilized to make informed decisions on matters such as identifying gaps, learning from mistakes, and developing intervention/solution strategies. Moreover, the process of sharing classroom research can also provide collaborative opportunities for educational bodies to coordinate and learn from one another.
The basic principles of operating the Aga Khan University Examination Board is based on the recommendations listed above. This unique, innovative and holistic approach to educational development, utilizes an integrated model as a demonstration of its success. At the heart of this model is research, which is used to make informed decisions about how to iterate upon AKU-EB’s practices.
Through this model, both Metric (Grades 9 and 10) and Intermediate (Grades 11 and 12) qualifications for AKU-EB have gained credibility at both a national and international level. External metrics also validate the model’s approach: AKU-EB examinations are found to be the best predictor of future success in terms of university admissions in Pakistan. According to a 2017 report by the Federal Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, a comparative study of 27 government examination boards, AKU-EB and international examination system in Pakistan shows that graduates of the AKU-EB system are also likely to do far better in university admission tests of undergraduate universities in Pakistan compared to others (Malik, Sarwar, & Imran, 2017). Ultimately, the most important factor towards the improvement of education in Pakistan is a collaborative effort on multiple levels between stakeholders, the public and private sectors, and various educational bodies. There must be an acknowledgment on a national level that improving education is a long-term investment, and that the way forward will demand a great deal of investment before seeing returns.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 8624 Spring 2022-23
Q.2 Discuss the problems faced by Board of Intermediate and Secondary Educating (BISE) in structuring the boards and administration of examinations
The examination boards within their provinces are, however, making combined efforts through the sharing of their experiences and expertise in improving the systems especially in the development of exams. Yet the challenge is high, demanding consistent effort and increased resources to bring a real change in the system.
Elaborated below are the major hindrances affecting the overall performance of the examination boards. Contrary to the fact that these issues were raised and discussed at various forums with several recommendations made, a significant change in the system of examinations specifically at the secondary and higher secondary levels (up to grade 12) is yet to be seen in the country.
The public examination boards have a crucial role in improving the quality of education. It is generally accepted fact worldwide that teachers are concerned about the success of their students and as such their classroom practices are focused on teaching to the test — what is asked and how the examinations are developed to assess what the students have learned.
So, one of the effective ways of improving the education system would be to create a link between curriculum, learning and assessment by improving the examinations in terms of content coverage and the quality of papers that require understanding, critical thinking and application of knowledge. It is beyond doubt that both the SSC and HSSC examinations are increasingly becoming high stake. So, there is an unprecedented pressure on students, teachers and parents to attain high marks.
Whereas the energies and resources are required to be diverted towards improving the quality of teaching and learning to provide a sound knowledge base ensuring students’ future success, parents, teachers and students are engaged in approaches that encourage tuitions, selective study and short cuts opening the ways for malpractices. As a result the credibility of boards of intermediate and secondary education (BISE) certificates as genuine records of student achievement is often questioned especially while trying to get admissions to prestigious institutions after SSC and HSSC. The introduction of placement tests in professional colleges and reputed institutions of higher learning speaks of the falling credibility of these certificates. The first step to improve the quality of education and assessment therefore, is to shift the focus from paper certification to real education by improving the quality of examinations that focus on the candidates’ thinking and application abilities rather than testing their memory.
A gradual shift from manual to the use of modern software in the BISE examination system is vital in meeting the growing demands. With an increasing number of candidates and a pressing need for quality assurance some of the boards are already making use of IT facilities in candidate registration and result preparation. The use of IT facility will make the boards more effective, fair and transparent thereby restoring public trust and credibility of the examination boards.
The BISE can arrange for the provision of these facilities from their own resources and, in some cases, government support or external funding can also be arranged. The starting activity could be the development of human resources that match with their IT needs in each board before implementing the software project. The range of equipment will differ from board to board according to their capacity and resources to move from manual to IT facilities.
One of the neglected aspects of examination systems is the analyses of results at both the SSC and HSSC levels and eventual feedback to schools/colleges at the end of examinations. One of the purposes of conducting examinations is to provide useful data generated by exam results for future remedial actions. But, because of limited IT facilities coupled with inadequate human resources, feedback information to schools is currently restricted to candidate scores and grades only.
Eventually the affiliated schools cannot make any significant improvement in terms of teaching and learning and curriculum coverage by subject and by content areas. The solution, therefore, is to generate the desired data by result analyses and then sharing it with school systems/heads as exam feedback. This initiative will greatly benefit the management, teachers and the taught in making effective remedial efforts leading to overall educational improvement. Different approaches, according to the local needs, such as engaging local community and parents’ representatives in feedback sessions, can be adopted to make them more productive.
Syllabi and learning support materials
The well-intended aims and objectives of the National Curriculum and syllabi cannot be achieved simply for the reasons that they are not addressed to students and teachers. These national documents never reach schools leaving the teachers, in most of the cases, unaware of the efforts going on in improving the contents of subject curricula.
For example, the National Curriculum revised in 2006 is outcome-based and a genuine effort has been made at the national level to update it according to the changing market demands.
Thus, one of the tasks of BISE in improving classroom practices would be to produce the examination syllabi in collaboration with the Curriculum Wing and provincial education departments and ensure the supply of national curricula to each teacher in affiliated schools .This initiative will greatly help both the teachers and learners especially when there is a dearth of quality textbooks.
Inter Board Committee of Chairmen (IBCC)
The role of IBCC is expanding with the efforts for improving the quality of examinations. The ED-Links project is one recent example which aims at strengthening and capacity building of the IBCC along with six targeted boards. The BISE are currently supervised by provincial education departments and in the case of Sindh, the governor is the controlling authority.
It has been experienced that some of the decisions that the IBCC has taken are not fully implemented by the BISE at the provincial level resulting in different procedures and policies related to examinations. The combination of subjects for the SSC part-wise (classes IX-X) examinations being followed in all the provinces except for Sindh is one clear example to quote.
There are examples of successful national level organisations responsible for conducting examinations worldwide. On the same pattern, the establishment of an autonomous body, say a National Council of Examination Boards, responsible for ensuring the quality assurance of examinations at the SSC and HSSC levels with representation from user groups including schools, teachers, universities, and civil society will be a step forward in transforming the situation.
The new structure will make a wider impact on education by implementing effective examination systems, uniform standards and procedures across the country.
Development and provision of textbooks at the start of the academic session has been one of the issues causing frustration among the students and parents across the country. The efforts gone into making the revised outcome-based National Curriculum of core subjects at the SSC and HSSC levels are commendable and their fruits can only reach schools when ad equately covered in textbooks with the assessment system based on the new curriculum.
Given the time and resource constraints and in view of the current challenges in the supply of textbooks, the school systems/parents should have the freedom of selecting and using multiple textbooks relevant to subject curriculum and market economy. Teaching, learning and assessment based on subject curriculum will promote extensive study among the students leading to a gradual shift from a single textbook-based limited learning and assessment to curriculum-based examinations.
AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8624 Spring 2022-23
Q.3 Discuss the salient features of private schools and describe their academic programs and curriculum.
Education plays a pivotal role in the rise and fall of the nations especially in the 21st century importance of education influence much to meet the fast growing challenges. It is mainly due to the emergence of global competition in education and technology. This competitive environment is the core need for progress of any country. All countries including Pakistan have different school systems but when we divide them we find two major categories of school systems: private and public schools. In Pakistan, private schools are getting mass acceptance today to ensure sustained progress of the country.
During 1990s and 2000s, private sector emerged as a key provider of education services in Pakistan both in absolute terms and relative to the public sector. Private educational institutions are playing key role not only in eradicating illiteracy but also enhancing the level of students as well as teachers by providing better academic environment. Private sector contributed significantly in eradicating illiteracy in the emerging economies. If private schools are properly managed they can uplift educational standard in Pakistan as well.
The educational landscape of Pakistan has gone through numerous transformations in the past two decades. Enrollment levels and gender parity index have been on the rise. The changes in the education sector that have been taking place in Pakistan have created an environment with numerous opportunities as well as challenges in terms of policy development. Even though the enrollment in government schools is much bigger than any other sector, the declining trend in favor of non –state providers is significant.
Education, especially primary education is mostly considered a public service which should be provided to the citizens without discrimination, irrespective of affordability and mainly as the government’s responsibility. This ideology was behind the nationalization of all education institutions in 1972, which severely interrupted the role of the robust private sector particularly at the post elementary level. However, like other services provided by the government, education provision has been severely constrained by governance, quality and effectiveness.
After the end of nationalization in 1979, Pakistan has witnessed an exponential increase in the role of private sector service providers. The negative experiences of government schools have instigated parents to shift children from government to private schools. Private schools no longer remain an urban or elite phenomenon, but rather poor households also use these facilities to a large extent, due to their better locations, reasonable fees, teachers’ presence and better-quality learning, especially in the fields of mathematics and language. Even though private schools started off as an urban phenomenon, more recently they have mushroomed in rural areas as well.
Several characteristics are responsible for making private schooling more attractive to parents compared to government schools; these include better test scores, better physical infrastructure, and lower rates of teacher absenteeism. Some of the other factors are:
- Income of parents
2- Teacher quality factors influencing school choice:
- Parents’ knowledge of the teacher’s educational qualifications
- Parents’ opinion of the teacher’s regularity
- Parents’ rating of the teacher’s teaching skills
- Facilities in School
- Child safety
- Quality of education
- School Fee
- Medium of Instruction
- Better results
Even if we disregard the debate of whether the learning levels are better in private or government schools, the fact remains that the learning levels for both types of institutes remain poor in an absolute sense. The private schools advantage over the public schools is marginal up if we look at the problems of education in the country holistically speaking. Therefore, the policy developers should cater to supporting and improving both the sectors and not either of the two.
The outcomes of private versus public schools’ debate may be a popular discourse, however, at a policy level it is essential to understand that the current education emergency in Pakistan cannot be confronted with just a single player in the education sector. Multiple players, other than the government alone are required in the process to combat the problems. The government needs private sector’s help to contest the challenges. Various other challenges including the flood, security issues and dislocations of citizens due to the regional conflicts in the country also pose major concerns that the households and state need to plan around in the future. The need of the hour is a collective action by all the stakeholders, including the households, government, private sector and the civil society.
It can be a better option if the government uses its resources not on increasing the number of schools but rather on the quality of existing schools. Increasing access to education for children by increasing the number of schools should be a policy left for the private sector and the government itself should concentrate on improving the quality of physical facilities and teachers in the existing schools. By doing this, the benchmark for the private schools will also increase, thus increasing both access to, and quality of education.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8624 Spring 2022-23
Q.4 Write down detailed note on importance of textbook and criteria for selectin of test books.
Textbook evaluation can be divided into separate phases: pre-use (also known as pre-evaluation), during use (or in-use) and after use (or post-use).
Most textbook evaluation schemes distinguish two essential stages that are necessary at the pre-evaluation phase: a description or analysis phase, and an interpretation or evaluation phase. In the first phase, the contents of the book have to be carefully described in terms of scope and sequence, organization, and the types of texts and exercises contained within. The analysis phase will involve identifying these kinds of information:
- Aims and objectives of the book.
- Level of the book.
- Skills addressed.
- Topics covered.
- Situations it is intended for.
- Target learners.
- Time required.
- Number and length of units.
- Organization of units.
This stage of evaluation is more difficult since it involves subjective judgements, and these often differ from one person to another. For this reason, group evaluations are often useful. A number of checklists have been developed to assist at this stage of Pre-evaluation. However, checklists involve somewhat subjective categories and usually need to be adapted to reflect the particular book under consideration. In general, textbook evaluation addresses the following issues:
Goals: What does the book seek to achieve and how clearly are its learning outcomes identified?
Syllabus: What syllabus framework is the book based on? Is the syllabus adequate or would it need to be supplemented (e.g. through additional activities for grammar or pronunciation)?
Theoretical framework: What language-learning theory is the book based on? Does it present an informed understanding of any underlying theory?
Methodology: What methodology is the book based on? Is it pedagogically sound?
Language content: What kind of language does it contain and how authentic and relevant is the content? Is it an appropriate level of difficulty for the learners?
Other content: What topics and themes are covered and are they appropriate for the target learners?
Organization: Is the book well organized into units and lessons, and within lessons are the purposes of activities clearly identified? Do units have a coherent, consistent organization and do they gradually progress in difficulty throughout the book?
Teacher appeal: Does the book look easy to teach and is it self-contained, or would the teacher need to develop supplementary materials to use with it? Would it require special training or could it be used by teachers with limited experience, and by both native-speaker and non-native-speaker teachers?
Learner appeal: How engaging would it be for learners? How would they rate the design of the book (including the photos and illustrations), the topics and the kinds of activities included? Is the material clearly relevant to their perceived language-learning needs? Are self-study components included?
Ancilliaries: What other components does the book include, such as teacher’s book, workbook, tests, and digital and web-based support? Are all of these components published and available?
Price: Is the book affordable for the intended buyers?
When a group-evaluation process is used, all of the issues above and others specific to the teaching context can be discussed, and if several books are being considered, a consensus reached on the book that most suits teachers’ needs. The decision may not rest entirely on the book’s merits. For example, if students are known to use a certain coursebook in private high schools, the book may be rejected for use in private-language programmes that attract university students.
Evaluating during and after use
In-use evaluation focuses partially on the global needs of the institution: if testing is important, the comprehensive nature of the tests may be evaluated closely; if lab work is important, the pedagogical effectiveness and comprehensiveness of the online components may be evaluated in depth; if the school transitions students from a younger-learners programme to an adult programme, the ease of the transition from the coursebook for younger learners may be reviewed.
In terms of the classroom experience, however, and overall learner satisfaction, in-use evaluation focuses on how well the book functions in the classroom, and depends on monitoring the book whilst it is being used by collecting information from both teachers and students. Information collected can serve the following purposes:
- To provide feedback on how well the book works in practice and how effectively it achieves it aims.
- To document effective ways of using the textbook and assist other teachers in using it.
- To keep a record of adaptations that were made to the book.
This monitoring process may involve ongoing consultation with teachers to address issues that arise as the book is being used and to resolve problems that may occur. For example:
- Is there too much or too little material?
- Is it at the right level for students?
- What aspects of the book are proving least and most effective?
- What do teachers and students like most or least about the book?
Various approaches to monitoring the use of a book are possible:
- Observation: Classroom visits to see how teachers use the book and to find out how the book influences the quality of teaching and learning in the lesson.
- Record of use: Documentation of what parts of the book were used or not used and what adaptations or supplements were made to the book and why.
- Feedback sessions: Group meetings in which teachers discuss their experiences with the book.
- Written reports: The use of reflection sheets, or other forms of written feedback (e.g. blogs and online forums), in which teachers make brief notes about what worked well and what did not work well, or give suggestions on using the book.
- Teachers’ reviews: Written reviews by a individual or groups of teachers on their experiences with the book, and what they liked or didn’t like about it.
- Students’ reviews: Comments from students on their experiences with the book.
Post-use evaluation serves to provide information that will help decide if the book will continue to be used for future programmes. Detailed information from textbook-evaluation processes, often conducted over a lengthy period, is a primary source of input when publishers decide to develop new editions of textbooks. Therefore, teachers may have a profound effect on the future direction of textbooks they are currently using.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8624 Autumn 2022-23
Q.5 Discuss the examination system in Pakistan. Also highlight the factors which affect the quality of examination system in our schools.
If you are doing dissertation level research, you will also be collecting your own data using a test or measure designed to address the variables present in your research. Finding the right test or measure can sometimes be difficult. In some cases, tests are copyrighted and must be purchased from commercial publishers. In other cases instruments can be obtained for free directly from the authors or can be found within published articles (in the methods section or as an appendix). The Library can help you with obtaining publisher or author information along with test reviews, if they are available.
One important decision you will eventually face in the dissertation process is whether to use an existing instrument, to modify an instrument, or to create your own instrument from scratch. The latter two will require extensive testing and are not generally recommended. Whichever decision you make should be thought over carefully and discussed with your mentor or dissertation chair committee.
All of our tests are rigorously developed and reviewed to provide accurate and relevant measures of skill, across all groups of applicants. Here’s an overview of our test development and review process:
We work with key stakeholders to ensure our tests are appropriate for the intended purpose, considering the requirements of admissions processes, and those of test-takers.
Test items (questions) follow detailed specifications and are written by trained item writers with a background in teaching and learning.
Items are reviewed and edited to ensure they conform to the test specification, are clear and unambiguous, and meet our high quality standards.
Where appropriate, test items are pretested with sample groups who have a similar profile to actual test-takers. This ensures that items perform as expected.
Our tests are assembled from a pool of approved test items. Each version of the test is constructed to reflect the correct level of difficulty and ensure each subject area or skill being assessed is being covered.
Our tests are administered in secure, standardised conditions in our network of centres around the world. This ensures that all test-takers have the same experience and ensures the security of test material is maintained.
Post-test statistical analysis
We run routine statistical analyses after each test session to confirm the quality of our test items and to ensure they have been fair to all groups of test-takers.
Analysing the performance of different test-taker groups on each test item highlights any potential for bias. This is known as differential item functioning (DIF) analysis. For examiner-marked papers, we also run analyses of marker performance to ensure quality and consistency.
By reviewing our tests we ensure they remain fit for purpose. Information from statistical analyses and feedback from stakeholder groups feeds into our test format and content review cycle, informing future test design and development.
Searching in Roadrunner
The simplest way to discover instruments relevant to your dissertation research is to carefully read the “Methods” section in peer-reviewed journal articles. A dissertation will build on a field of study and you will be well served by understanding how the constructs you are interested in have been measured. For example, while exploring the topic of depression, read articles and take note of which depression inventories are used and why.
- Start by conducting a keyword search on your topic using Roadrunner Search, the central search box found on the Library’s homepage. Roadrunner Search searches approximately 95% of our Library’s database content, so it is a great starting point for any research topic.
- Use advanced search techniques covered in Searching 101 like subject searching, truncation, and Boolean operators to make your search more precise. You may also read about these search techniques by referring to the Preparing to Search section of our Research Process guide.
- Limit your results to scholarly/peer-reviewed articles. Enter keywords from your topic on the top one or two lines. Then, add a search string such as (survey OR instrument OR scale) on a separate line and limit this line to the AB Abstract of the article, as shown in the example below. You might also consider using these additional terms as part of your search: questionnaire, test, measurement, measure, assessment, inventory