Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8625 Spring 2022-23
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Course: Higher Education (8625)
Semester: Spring, 2022-23
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q.1 Socio-economic development of e country depends upon higher education. Comment on the statement and provide relevant examples to support your views.
The purposes and impact of higher education on the economy and the broader society have been transformed through time in various ways. Higher education institutional and policy dynamics differ across time, but also between countries and political regimes and therefore context cannot be neglected. This article reviews the purpose of higher education and its institutional characteristics juxtaposing two, allegedly rival, conceptual frameworks; the instrumental and the intrinsic one. Various pedagogical traditions are critically reviewed and used as examples, which can potentially inform today’s policy making. Since, higher education cannot be seen as detached from all other lower levels of education appropriate conceptual links are offered throughout this article. Its significance lies on the organic synthesis of literature across social science, suggesting ways of going forward based on the traditions that already exist but seem underutilized so far because of overdependence in market-driven practices. This offers a new insight on how theories can inform policy making, through conceptual “bridging” and reconciliation. The debate on the purpose of higher education is placed under the context of the most recent developments of increasing social inequalities in the western world and its relation to the mass model of higher education and the relevant policy decisions for a continuous increase in participation. This article suggests that the current policy focus on labor market driven policies in higher education have led to an ever growing competition transforming this social institution to an ordinary market-place, where attainment and degrees are seen as a currency that can be converted to a labour market value. Education has become an instrument for economic progress moving away from its original role to provide context for human development. As a result, higher education becomes very expensive and even if policies are directed towards openness, in practice, just a few have the money to afford it. A shift toward a hybrid model, where the intrinsic purpose of higher education is equally acknowledged along with its instrumental purpose should be seen by policy makers as the way forward to create educational systems that are more inclusive and societies that are more knowledgeable and just. The mainstream view in the western world, as informed by the human capital theory sees education, as an ordinary investment and the main reason why someone consumes time and money to undertake higher levels of education, is the high returns expected from the corresponding wage premium, when enters the labour market (Becker, 1964, 1993). Nevertheless, things in practice are more complicated and this sequence of events is unlikely to be sustained, especially in recession periods like the one we currently live in. On the contrary, one notion of education, related somewhat to the American liberal arts tradition, is the intrinsic notion, which interprets that the purpose of education is to ‘equip people to make their own free, autonomous choices about the life they will lead’ (Bridges, 1992: 92). There might be an economic basis underpinning this individual choice, but the intrinsic notion permits more subjective motivations, which are not necessarily affected by economic circumstances.
Robinson and Aronica (2009) argue that education, have become an impersonal linear process, a type of assembly line, similar to a factory production. They challenge this view and call for a less standardised pedagogy; more personalised to students needs as well as talents. Education is not similar to a manufacturing production-line, since students are highly concerned about the quality of education they receive as opposed to motor cars, which are indifferent to the process by which they are manufactured. Along these lines, Waters (2012), following Weber’s (1947, 1968) rationale on the role of bureaucracy in modern societies, adds that this manufacturing process is achieved through rigid, rationalised and productively efficient but totally impersonal bureaucracy, operated in a way that sees children as raw materials for the creation of adults, which is the final product properly equipped to reproduce “itself” by being a parent to a new born “raw material” and so forth. Durkheim (1956, 2006) sees this as a mechanism where adults exercise their influence over the younger in order to maintain the status quo they desire. However, since education entails ontological as well as epistemological implications, primary focus should be given to learning in such a way that educative and social functions could be amalgamated, rather than solely focusing on the delivery of existing knowledge per se, which becomes a reiterated process and an unchallenged absolute truth (Freire, 1970; Heidegger, 1988; Dall’ Alba and Barnacle, 2007).
This article focus on higher education; since it is the last stage before somebody enters the labour market and thus the instrumental view becomes more dominant over the intrinsic view, compared to the lower levels of education. Higher education, is being traditionally offered by universities. The first established university in Europe is the University of Bologna, where the term “academic freedom” was introduced as the kernel of its culture (Newman, 1996). Graham (2013) distinguishes between three different models of higher education. These are: the university college, the research and the technical university. He provides a historical review of the origins of these three models. The university college is the oldest one, where Christian values were the core values. Later on, when scientific knowledge questioned the universal theological truth, another type of university has been established, where research was the ultimate goal of the scholarship. This type of university has subsequently transformed by the introduction of the liberal arts tradition, flourished in the US. The research university model, originated circa 16th century in Cambridge and established in Berlin by the introduction of the Humboldian University, shared a common aim: the pursuit of knowledge and its dissemination to the greater society. The third model of university is the technical one. It has been established in an industrial revolution context in Scotland and particularly in Glasgow in the premises of what is currently known as the University of Strathclyde. While the introduction of capitalism changed radically the structure and the format of labour relations, the technical model was based on the idea that industrial skills had to be acquired by formal education and somehow verified institutionally in order to be applied to the broader society. This is the first time where the up to then distinct fields of education and industry, started to be conceived as inextricably tight in a rather linear way.
These different models of higher education cultures and traditions still exist, but in reality, Universities worldwide follow a hybrid approach, where all traditions collaborate with each other. However, there are some universities that still carry the reputation and tradition of a specific model and to some extent this tradition differentiates them from all others. It is not the scope of this research to analyse this in detail, as the main aim is to offer an institutional and policy narrative, exploring the purpose of higher education and its relationship with social inequalities, focusing primarily on the western world.
Nowadays, in a rapidly changing word, the major debate is placed under the forms of institutional transformation of higher education. Brennan (2004), based on Trow (1979, 2000), allocates three forms of higher education. The first one is the elite form, which main aim is to prepare and shape the mind-set of students originated from the most dominant class. The second is the mass form of higher education, which transmits the knowledge and skills acquired in higher education into the technical and economic roles students subsequently perform in the labour market. Lastly, the third is the universal form, which main purpose is to adapt students and the general population to the rapid social and technological changes.
This article reviews the contemporary trends in higher education and its widespread diffusion as interacted with the evolutions in western economies and societies, where social inequalities persist and even become wider (Dorling and Dorling, 2015). The narrative used in this article is more suitable to conceptualise higher education in a western world context, though we acknowledge that via globalisation, the way education and particularly higher education is delivered in the rest of the world seems to follow similar to the Western worlds paths, despite the apparent differences in culture, social and economic systems as well as writing systems.
An interdisciplinary and critical synthesis of the relevant literature is conducted, presenting two stances that are largely considered as rival: The instrumental one that treats higher education as an ordinary investment with particular financial yields in the labour market and the more intrinsic one which sees higher education as mainly detached from the logic of economic costs and benefits. The theoretical rivalry is apparent since in the former approach higher education is an inevitable property of labour market and thus an indispensable part of the mainstream economic neoliberal regime, whereas the latter sees no logical link between higher education and labour market purposes and therefore the content and substance of learning and knowledge acquisition in education and specifically in higher education should not be market-driven or aligned to the functions of specific economic regimes. However, this article argues that educational systems, and particularly their higher levels, are amalgamated parts of contemporary societies and therefore theories and practices need to move away from rather futile binary rationales.
The remainder of this paper explains why both the intrinsic and instrumental approaches are doomed to fail in practice when used in isolation. In a rapidly diverging and polarised world, where social inequalities rise within as well as between countries, common sense dictates social theories and practices to move towards reconciliation rather than stubborn rivalry. In that spirit, this paper argues that the intrinsic and instrumental approach are in fact complementary to each other. Such view can inform policy making towards building more inclusive educational systems; organically tight with the broader society. The narrative this article uses departs and expands on the rationale of eminent critical pedagogists such as Freire, Bronfenbrenner, Bourdieu and Kozol in order to challenge the current instrumental world-view of education, at least as this is apparent in the western world. Then the article moves into offering a reasoning for an organic synthesis of existing knowledge in order the two rival theories to be actualised in practice as a unified and reconciled pedagogical strategy. This reasoning builds on the research conducted by Durst’s (1999), Payne (1999) and Lu and Horner (2009). Durst (1999) suggests a “reflective instrumentalism”, where student’s pragmatic view that education is just a way of finding a well-paid job, operated in tandem with critical pedagogical canons, is indeed possible. Payne (1999) proposes a similar approach, where students are equipped with the necessary tools to find a job in the labour market; however educators should engage students with this knowledge in a critical way in order to be able to produce something new. Likewise Lu and Horner (2009) note that educators and students need to work together in such a way that perceptions of both are amenable to change and career choices are critically discussed in a constantly changing social context.
AIOU Solved Assignment 1 Code 8625 Spring 2022-23
Q.2 Explain different modes of higher education. Which mode, you think is better for Pakistani system of higher education and why?
Philosophy of education is the branch of applied or practical philosophy concerned with the nature and aims of education and the philosophical problems arising from educational theory and practice. Because that practice is ubiquitous in and across human societies, its social and individual manifestations so varied, and its influence so profound, the subject is wide-ranging, involving issues in ethics and social/political philosophy, epistemology, metaphysics, philosophy of mind and language, and other areas of philosophy. Because it looks both inward to the parent discipline and outward to educational practice and the social, legal, and institutional contexts in which it takes place, philosophy of education concerns itself with both sides of the traditional theory/practice divide. Its subject matter includes both basic philosophical issues (e.g., the nature of the knowledge worth teaching, the character of educational equality and justice, etc.) and problems concerning specific educational policies and practices (e.g., the desirability of standardized curricula and testing, the social, economic, legal and moral dimensions of specific funding arrangements, the justification of curriculum decisions, etc.). In all this the philosopher of education prizes conceptual clarity, argumentative rigor, the fair-minded consideration of the interests of all involved in or affected by educational efforts and arrangements, and informed and well-reasoned valuation of educational aims and interventions.
Philosophy of education has a long and distinguished history in the Western philosophical tradition, from Socrates’ battles with the sophists to the present day. Many of the most distinguished figures in that tradition incorporated educational concerns into their broader philosophical agendas (Curren 2000, 2018; Rorty 1998). While that history is not the focus here, it is worth noting that the ideals of reasoned inquiry championed by Socrates and his descendants have long informed the view that education should foster in all students, to the extent possible, the disposition to seek reasons and the ability to evaluate them cogently, and to be guided by their evaluations in matters of belief, action and judgment. This view, that education centrally involves the fostering of reason or rationality, has with varying articulations and qualifications been embraced by most of those historical figures; it continues to be defended by contemporary philosophers of education as well (Scheffler 1973 ; Siegel 1988, 1997, 2007, 2017).
1. Problems in Delineating the Field
The inward/outward looking nature of the field of philosophy of education alluded to above makes the task of delineating the field, of giving an over-all picture of the intellectual landscape, somewhat complicated (for a detailed account of this topography, see Phillips 1985, 2010). Suffice it to say that some philosophers, as well as focusing inward on the abstract philosophical issues that concern them, are drawn outwards to discuss or comment on issues that are more commonly regarded as falling within the purview of professional educators, educational researchers, policy-makers and the like. (An example is Michael Scriven, who in his early career was a prominent philosopher of science; later he became a central figure in the development of the field of evaluation of educational and social programs. See Scriven 1991a, 1991b.) At the same time, there are professionals in the educational or closely related spheres who are drawn to discuss one or another of the philosophical issues that they encounter in the course of their work. (An example here is the behaviorist psychologist B.F. Skinner, the central figure in the development of operant conditioning and programmed learning, who in works such as Walden Two (1948) and Beyond Freedom and Dignity (1972) grappled—albeit controversially—with major philosophical issues that were related to his work.)
What makes the field even more amorphous is the existence of works on educational topics, written by well-regarded philosophers who have made major contributions to their discipline; these educational reflections have little or no philosophical content, illustrating the truth that philosophers do not always write philosophy. However, despite this, works in this genre have often been treated as contributions to philosophy of education. (Examples include John Locke’s Some Thoughts Concerning Education  and Bertrand Russell’s rollicking pieces written primarily to raise funds to support a progressive school he ran with his wife. (See Park 1965.)
Finally, as indicated earlier, the domain of education is vast, the issues it raises are almost overwhelmingly numerous and are of great complexity, and the social significance of the field is second to none. These features make the phenomena and problems of education of great interest to a wide range of socially-concerned intellectuals, who bring with them their own favored conceptual frameworks—concepts, theories and ideologies, methods of analysis and argumentation, metaphysical and other assumptions, and the like. It is not surprising that scholars who work in this broad genre also find a home in the field of philosophy of education.
As a result of these various factors, the significant intellectual and social trends of the past few centuries, together with the significant developments in philosophy, all have had an impact on the content of arguments and methods of argumentation in philosophy of education—Marxism, psycho-analysis, existentialism, phenomenology, positivism, post-modernism, pragmatism, neo-liberalism, the several waves of feminism, analytic philosophy in both its ordinary language and more formal guises, are merely the tip of the iceberg.
2. Analytic Philosophy of Education and Its Influence
Conceptual analysis, careful assessment of arguments, the rooting out of ambiguity, the drawing of clarifying distinctions—all of which are at least part of the philosophical toolkit—have been respected activities within philosophy from the dawn of the field. No doubt it somewhat over-simplifies the complex path of intellectual history to suggest that what happened in the twentieth century—early on, in the home discipline itself, and with a lag of a decade or more in philosophy of education—is that philosophical analysis came to be viewed by some scholars as being the major philosophical activity (or set of activities), or even as being the only viable or reputable activity. In any case, as they gained prominence and for a time hegemonic influence during the rise of analytic philosophy early in the twentieth century analytic techniques came to dominate philosophy of education in the middle third of that century (Curren, Robertson, & Hager 2003).
The pioneering work in the modern period entirely in an analytic mode was the short monograph by C.D. Hardie, Truth and Fallacy in Educational Theory (1941; reissued in 1962). In his Introduction, Hardie (who had studied with C.D. Broad and I.A. Richards) made it clear that he was putting all his eggs into the ordinary-language-analysis basket:
The Cambridge analytical school, led by Moore, Broad and Wittgenstein, has attempted so to analyse propositions that it will always be apparent whether the disagreement between philosophers is one concerning matters of fact, or is one concerning the use of words, or is, as is frequently the case, a purely emotive one. It is time, I think, that a similar attitude became common in the field of educational theory. (Hardie 1962: xix)
About a decade after the end of the Second World War the floodgates opened and a stream of work in the analytic mode appeared; the following is merely a sample. D. J. O’Connor published An Introduction to Philosophy of Education (1957) in which, among other things, he argued that the word “theory” as it is used in educational contexts is merely a courtesy title, for educational theories are nothing like what bear this title in the natural sciences. Israel Scheffler, who became the paramount philosopher of education in North America, produced a number of important works including The Language of Education (1960), which contained clarifying and influential analyses of definitions (he distinguished reportive, stipulative, and programmatic types) and the logic of slogans (often these are literally meaningless, and, he argued, should be seen as truncated arguments), Conditions of Knowledge (1965), still the best introduction to the epistemological side of philosophy of education, and Reason and Teaching (1973 ), which in a wide-ranging and influential series of essays makes the case for regarding the fostering of rationality/critical thinking as a fundamental educational ideal (cf. Siegel 2016). B. O. Smith and R. H. Ennis edited the volume Language and Concepts in Education (1961); and R.D. Archambault edited Philosophical Analysis and Education (1965), consisting of essays by a number of prominent British writers, most notably R. S. Peters (whose status in Britain paralleled that of Scheffler in the United States), Paul Hirst, and John Wilson. Topics covered in the Archambault volume were typical of those that became the “bread and butter” of analytic philosophy of education (APE) throughout the English-speaking world—education as a process of initiation, liberal education, the nature of knowledge, types of teaching, and instruction versus indoctrination.
Among the most influential products of APE was the analysis developed by Hirst and Peters (1970) and Peters (1973) of the concept of education itself. Using as a touchstone “normal English usage,” it was concluded that a person who has been educated (rather than instructed or indoctrinated) has been (i) changed for the better; (ii) this change has involved the acquisition of knowledge and intellectual skills and the development of understanding; and (iii) the person has come to care for, or be committed to, the domains of knowledge and skill into which he or she has been initiated. The method used by Hirst and Peters comes across clearly in their handling of the analogy with the concept of “reform”, one they sometimes drew upon for expository purposes. A criminal who has been reformed has changed for the better, and has developed a commitment to the new mode of life (if one or other of these conditions does not hold, a speaker of standard English would not say the criminal has been reformed). Clearly the analogy with reform breaks down with respect to the knowledge and understanding conditions. Elsewhere Peters developed the fruitful notion of “education as initiation”.
The concept of indoctrination was also of great interest to analytic philosophers of education, for, it was argued, getting clear about precisely what constitutes indoctrination also would serve to clarify the border that demarcates it from acceptable educational processes. Thus, whether or not an instructional episode was a case of indoctrination was determined by the content taught, the intention of the instructor, the methods of instruction used, the outcomes of the instruction, or by some combination of these. Adherents of the different analyses used the same general type of argument to make their case, namely, appeal to normal and aberrant usage. Unfortunately, ordinary language analysis did not lead to unanimity of opinion about where this border was located, and rival analyses of the concept were put forward (Snook 1972). The danger of restricting analysis to ordinary language (“normal English usage”) was recognized early on by Scheffler, whose preferred view of analysis emphasized
first, its greater sophistication as regards language, and the interpenetration of language and inquiry, second, its attempt to follow the modern example of the sciences in empirical spirit, in rigor, in attention to detail, in respect for alternatives, and in objectivity of method, and third, its use of techniques of symbolic logic brought to full development only in the last fifty years… It is…this union of scientific spirit and logical method applied toward the clarification of basic ideas that characterizes current analytic philosophy [and that ought to characterize analytic philosophy of education]. (Scheffler 1973 [1989: 9–10])
After a period of dominance, for a number of important reasons the influence of APE went into decline. First, there were growing criticisms that the work of analytic philosophers of education had become focused upon minutiae and in the main was bereft of practical import. (It is worth noting that a 1966 article in Time, reprinted in Lucas 1969, had put forward the same criticism of mainstream philosophy.) Second, in the early 1970’s radical students in Britain accused Peters’ brand of linguistic analysis of conservatism, and of tacitly giving support to “traditional values”—they raised the issue of whose English usage was being analyzed?
Third, criticisms of language analysis in mainstream philosophy had been mounting for some time, and finally after a lag of many years were reaching the attention of philosophers of education; there even had been a surprising degree of interest on the part of the general reading public in the Australia as early as 1959, when Gilbert Ryle, editor of the journal Mind, refused to commission a review of Ernest Gellner’s Words and Things (1959)—a detailed and quite acerbic critique of Wittgenstein’s philosophy and its espousal of ordinary language analysis. (Ryle argued that Gellner’s book was too insulting, a view that drew Bertrand Russell into the fray on Gellner’s side—in the daily press, no less; Russell produced a list of insulting remarks drawn from the work of great philosophers of the past. See Mehta 1963.)
Richard Peters had been given warning that all was not well with APE at a conference in Canada in 1966; after delivering a paper on “The aims of education: A conceptual inquiry” that was based on ordinary language analysis, a philosopher in the audience (William Dray) asked Peters “whose concepts do we analyze?” Dray went on to suggest that different people, and different groups within society, have different concepts of education. Five years before the radical students raised the same issue, Dray pointed to the possibility that what Peters had presented under the guise of a “logical analysis” was nothing but the favored usage of a certain class of persons—a class that Peters happened to identify with (see Peters 1973, where to the editor’s credit the interaction with Dray is reprinted).
Fourth, during the decade of the seventies when these various critiques of analytic philosophy were in the process of eroding its luster, a spate of translations from the Continent stimulated some philosophers of education in Britain and North America to set out in new directions, and to adopt a new style of writing and argumentation. Key works by Gadamer, Foucault and Derrida appeared in English, and these were followed in 1984 by Lyotard’s The Postmodern Condition. The classic works of Heidegger and Husserl also found new admirers; and feminist philosophers of education were finding their voices—Maxine Greene published a number of pieces in the 1970s and 1980s, including The Dialectic of Freedom (1988); the influential book by Nel Noddings, Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education, appeared the same year as the work by Lyotard, followed a year later by Jane Roland Martin’s Reclaiming a Conversation. In more recent years all these trends have continued. APE was and is no longer the center of interest, although, as indicated below, it still retains its voice.
3. Areas of Contemporary Activity
As was stressed at the outset, the field of education is huge and contains within it a virtually inexhaustible number of issues that are of philosophical interest. To attempt comprehensive coverage of how philosophers of education have been working within this thicket would be a quixotic task for a large single volume and is out of the question for a solitary encyclopedia entry. Nevertheless, a valiant attempt to give an overview was made in A Companion to the Philosophy of Education (Curren 2003), which contains more than six-hundred pages divided into forty-five chapters each of which surveys a subfield of work. The following random selection of chapter topics gives a sense of the enormous scope of the field: Sex education, special education, science education, aesthetic education, theories of teaching and learning, religious education, knowledge, truth and learning, cultivating reason, the measurement of learning, multicultural education, education and the politics of identity, education and standards of living, motivation and classroom management, feminism, critical theory, postmodernism, romanticism, the purposes of universities, affirmative action in higher education, and professional education. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Education (Siegel 2009) contains a similarly broad range of articles on (among other things) the epistemic and moral aims of education, liberal education and its imminent demise, thinking and reasoning, fallibilism and fallibility, indoctrination, authenticity, the development of rationality, Socratic teaching, educating the imagination, caring and empathy in moral education, the limits of moral education, the cultivation of character, values education, curriculum and the value of knowledge, education and democracy, art and education, science education and religious toleration, constructivism and scientific methods, multicultural education, prejudice, authority and the interests of children, and on pragmatist, feminist, and postmodernist approaches to philosophy of education.
Given this enormous range, there is no non-arbitrary way to select a small number of topics for further discussion, nor can the topics that are chosen be pursued in great depth. The choice of those below has been made with an eye to highlighting contemporary work that makes solid contact with and contributes to important discussions in general philosophy and/or the academic educational and educational research communities.
The Content of the Curriculum and the Aims and Functions of Schooling
The issue of what should be taught to students at all levels of education—the issue of curriculum content—obviously is a fundamental one, and it is an extraordinarily difficult one with which to grapple. In tackling it, care needs to be taken to distinguish between education and schooling—for although education can occur in schools, so can mis-education, and many other things can take place there that are educationally orthogonal (such as the provision of free or subsidized lunches and the development of social networks); and it also must be recognized that education can occur in the home, in libraries and museums, in churches and clubs, in solitary interaction with the public media, and the like.
In developing a curriculum (whether in a specific subject area, or more broadly as the whole range of offerings in an educational institution or system), a number of difficult decisions need to be made. Issues such as the proper ordering or sequencing of topics in the chosen subject, the time to be allocated to each topic, the lab work or excursions or projects that are appropriate for particular topics, can all be regarded as technical issues best resolved either by educationists who have a depth of experience with the target age group or by experts in the psychology of learning and the like. But there are deeper issues, ones concerning the validity of the justifications that have been given for including/excluding particular subjects or topics in the offerings of formal educational institutions. (Why should evolution or creation “science” be included, or excluded, as a topic within the standard high school subject Biology? Is the justification that is given for teaching Economics in some schools coherent and convincing? Do the justifications for including/excluding materials on birth control, patriotism, the Holocaust or wartime atrocities in the curriculum in some school districts stand up to critical scrutiny?)
The different justifications for particular items of curriculum content that have been put forward by philosophers and others since Plato’s pioneering efforts all draw, explicitly or implicitly, upon the positions that the respective theorists hold about at least three sets of issues.
AIOU Solved Assignment 2 Code 8625 Spring 2022-23
Q.3 Critically discuss the provisions of Higher Education in the National Education Policy 1998-2010.
According to the constitution of 1973, article 25
- All citizens are equal before law and are entitled to equal protection of law.
- There shall be no discrimination on the basis of sex alone.
- Nothing in this constitution shall present the state from making any special provision for the protection of women and children.
For the normal and non-lawyer persons there is no relation in this article and its sub-clause with “EP” but for law fraternity it has impact that might be left on whole state policy. Especially where according to law and constitution we donot discriminate among students and institution on the basis of sex, gender, and cast.
Justice “Muhammad Nassem chuhdry” in his famous commentary of constitution of 1973stated that: “Educational institution Allegation of discrimination in making of answer books by specified papers to appear in court on fixed date of hearing along with answer book of all other examinees marked by them .Validity leave to appeal was granted to examine whether high court was right in summoning examines as well as the answer books to find out if they had been corrected making.”
“Reasonable classification has always been considered permissible ,provided that such classification is based on reasonable and rational categorization .such classification must not be arbitrary or artificial, it must be evenly applicable to all persons or goods similarly situated or placed” (justice m.naseem chuhdry 1973 const /p-89)
And the other article of constitution that cast shadow over educational policy is Article-31, with article 31, we have one other article that is 227 that also stress on Islamic sharia applicability over the whole system of state.
So in the process of making E-policy ,publishing E-policy, propagating E-policy, while preparing for curriculum ,we drive not only light and guide ness from constitution generally and “objective Especially” but also we take guide ness from Islamic sharia .
According to the constitution “No law will be made by legislature that is contradictory and against the Islamic ideologies” so this article clearly makes link with educational policy of state.
Pakistan is a federal Islamic cum parliamentary state by the faith of country law and Regulation, even though researcher such As “Dr.poly dada” said that Pakistan is not an Islamic state but it’s a state of Muslims”. But majority believes that it’s an Islamic state.
This is the point that left lot of flaw and gap while making and implementing state Educational policy.
Pakistani educational system has converted and splitted in class education such like. Upper class school, upper middle school, lower middle school, lower private schools and maddarsahs based system run by wafaq-ul madaris and tanzeem-ul-madarees.and government yellow wall schools.
And higher education is also seems devided in same pattern, till yet 3 major educational policies, reformation and, recommendation has been made that are coming below.
- Policy presented by justice S.M.Shareef on the 26 August of 1959.
- the Educational policy and reformation that was made by the Z.A.bhutto made commission on the 15, March of 1972.
- The educational policy made for the period of 1998 till 2010 .
Salient Features of National Education Policy 1998-2010
Aims and objectives of Education and Islamic Education
Education and training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teachings of Islam as laid down in the Qur’an and Sunnah and to educate and train them as a true practicing Muslim. To evolve an integrated system of national education by bringing Deeni Madaris and modern schools closer to each stream in curriculum and the contents of education. Nazira Qur’an will be introduced as a compulsory component from grade I-VIII while at secondary level translation of the selected verses from the Holy Qur’an will be offered.
Literacy and Non-Formal Education
Eradication of illiteracy through formal and informal means for expansion of basic education through involvement of community. The current literacy rate of about 39% will be raised to 55% during the first five years of the policy and 70% by the year 2010 Functional literacy and income generation skills will be provided to rural women of 15 to 25 age group and basic educational facilities will be provided to working children. Functional literacy will be imparted to adolescents (10-14) who missed out the chance of primary education. The existing disparities in basic education will be reduced to half by year 2010.
About 90% of the children in the age group (5-9) will be enrolled in schools by year 2002-03. Gross enrolment ratio at primary level will be increased to 105% by year 2010 and Compulsory Primary Education Act will be promulgated and enforced in a phased manner. Full utilization of existing capacity at the basic level has been ensured by providing for introduction of double shift in existing school of basics education. Quality of primary education will be improved through revising curricula, imparting in-service training to the teachers, raising entry qualifications for teachers from matriculation to intermediate, revising teacher training curricula, improving management and supervision system and reforming the existing examination and assessment system. Integration of primary and middle level education in to elementary education (I-VIII). Increasing participation rate from 46% to 65% by 2002-3 and 85% 2010 at middle level. At the elementary level, a system of continuous evaluation will be adopted to ensure attainment of minimum learning competencies for improving quality of education.
One model secondary school will be set up at each district level. A definite vocation or a career will be introduced at secondary level. It would be ensured that all the boys and girls, desirous of entering secondary education, become enrolled in secondary schools. Curriculum for secondary and higher secondary will be revised and multiple textbooks will be introduced. The participation rate will be increased from 31% to 48% by 2002-03. The base for technical and vocational education shall be broadened through introduction of a stream of matriculation (Technical) on pilot basis and establishment of vocational high schools. Multiple textbooks shall be introduced at secondary school level.
To increase the effectiveness of the system by institutionalizing in-service training of teachers, teacher trainers and educational administrators through school clustering and other techniques. To upgrade the quality of pre-service teacher training programmes by introducing parallel programmes of longer duration at post-secondary and post-degree levels i.e. introduction of programs of FA/FSc education and BA/BSc education . The contents and methodology parts of teacher education curricula will be revised. Both formal and non-formal means shall be used to provide increased opportunities of in-service training to the working teachers, preferably at least once in five years. A special package of incentives package shall be provided to rural females to join the teaching profession. A new cadre of teacher educators shall be created.
Technical and Vocational Education
To develop opportunities for technical and vocational education in the country for producing trained manpower, commensurate with the needs of industry and economic development goals. To improve the quality of technical education so as to enhance the chances of employment of Technical and vocational Education (TVE) graduates by moving from a static, supply-based system to a demand-driven system. Revision and updating of curricula shall be made a continuing activity to keep pace with changing needs of the job market and for accommodating the new developments. Development of technical competence, communication skills, safety and health measures and entrepreneurial skills etc. shall be reflected in the curricula. Institution-industry linkages shall be strengthened to enhance the relevance of training to the requirements of the job market. Emerging technologies e.g. telecommunication, computer, electronics, automation, petroleum, garments, food preservation, printing and graphics, textile, mining, sugar technology, etc. greatly in demand in the job market shall be introduced in selected polytechnics. A National Council for Technical Education shall be established to regulate technical education.
Access to higher education shall be expanded to at least 5% of the age group 17-23 by the year 2010. Merit shall be the only criterion for entry into higher education. Access to higher education, therefore, shall be based on entrance tests. Reputed degree colleges shall be given autonomy and degree awarding status. Degree colleges shall have the option to affiliate with any recognized Pakistani university or degree awarding institution for examination and award of degrees. To attract highly talented qualified teachers, the university staff will be paid at higher rates than usual grades. Local M.Phil. And Ph.D programs shall be launched and laboratory and library facilities will be strengthened. Split PhD programs shall be launched in collaboration with reputed foreign universities and at the minimum, 100 scholars shall be annually trained under this arrangement. All quota/reserve seats shall be eliminated. Students from backward areas, who clear entry tests, would compete amongst themselves. In order to eliminate violence, all political activities on the campus shall be banned.
Computers shall be introduced in secondary schools in a phased manner. School curricula shall be revised to include recent developments in information technology, such as software development, the Information Super Highway designing Web Pages, etc
Library and Documentation Services
School, college and university libraries shall be equipped with the latest reading materials/services. Internet connection with computer shall be given to each library. Mobile library services for semi-urban and remote rural areas shall be introduced.
Private Sector in Education
Encouraging private investment in education. There shall be regulatory bodies at the national and provincial levels to regulate activities and smooth functioning of privately-managed schools and institutions of higher education through proper rules and regulations. A reasonable tax rebate shall be granted on the expenditure incurred on the setting-up of educational facilities by the private sector. Matching grants shall be provided for establishing educational institutions by the private sector in the rural areas or poor urban areas through Education Foundations. Existing institutions of higher learning shall be allowed to negotiate for financial assistance with donor agencies in collaboration with the Ministry of Education. Educational institutions to be set up in the private sector shall be provided (a) plots in residential schemes on reserve prices, and (b) rebate on income tax, like industry. Schools running on non-profit basis shall be exempted from all taxes. Curricula of private institutions must conform to the principles laid down in the Federal Supervision of curricula, Textbooks and Maintenance of Standards of Education Act, 1976. The fee structure of the privately managed educational institutions shall be developed in consultation with the government.
The National Education Testing Service will be established to design and administer standardized tests for admission to professional institutions. Qualifying these tests will become a compulsory requirement for entry to professional education. This mechanism is expected to check the incidence of malpractice in examinations. Likewise, standardized tests shall be introduced for admission to general education in universities.
Implementation Monitoring and Evaluation
A comprehensive monitoring and evaluation system has been envisaged from grass-roots to the highest level. The District Education Authority will be established in each district to ensure public participation in monitoring and implementation. The education Ministers at the Federal and Provincial levels will oversee monitoring committees, responsible for implementation at their levels. The Prime Minister and Provincial Chief Ministers will be the Chief of National and Provincial Education Councils respectively which will ensure achievements of targets. Existing EMIS at Federal and Provincial levels shall be strengthened to make them responsive to the need of Monitoring and Evaluation System (MES).The Academy of Educational Planning and Management (AEPAM) shall be strengthened and tuned up to meet the emerging demands of MES and its obligations at national and provincial levels. Data collected through Provincial EMISs and collated by AEPAM through National Education Management Information System (NEMIS) shall be recognized as one source for planning, management, monitoring, and evaluation purposes to avoid disparities and confusion. Databases of critical indicators on qualitative aspects of educational growth shall be developed and maintained by AEPAM for developing sustainable indicators of progress, based on more reliable and valid data to facilitate planning, implementation and follow-up. A School Census Day shall be fixed for collecting data from all over the country. The total expenditure of the government on education will be raised from its present level of 2.2% to 4% of GNP by the year 2002-03 (p.132).
If you will go through the Education policy of Pakistan from 1998 to 2010 you would have to know that the policy is just consist on 15 points. And whole theme of policy move around these 15 points. So in the very first Aim and objective point we may find there that “Education and Training should enable the citizens of Pakistan to lead their lives according to the teaching of Islam as laid down in the quran and sunnah and to Educate, to train them as a true plasticizing Muslims .These lines are not a new lines lined by the policy makers, we continuously keep on reading all these stuff for previous 60 years from the Mouth of government and policy makers. And again the policy proved that it has been unsuccessful what are the reasons? And what is the logic behind it? We don’t have an enough time and space to discuss here the answer may be asked to educators. As clearly the clash between the deeni madersah students and modern school and institutions students is going on and fight is being on in fata, and tribal Agencies, and again the battle among the Mr. and Mullah is being fought due to un-unified, non-logic, non centralized policy. gap and gulf between these both educational systems is clear to every body. Now we turn our selves to the 2nd point where our policy makers shown there dream to achieve the 70% literacy rate from 39% till 70%.and it clearly seems us impossible ,even though the project such as in province Punjab like “parha likha” Punjab didn’t reach to the zenith .Basically they need sincerity,professionalism,and hard working .in the statement of policy makers where they displayed their concern over education through the policy that till 2010 disparities in basic education that will be reduce to half by year 2010. Policy makers in their 3rd stage relate it to the elementary education, and here they explained that they till the 2002-3. 90% of the age of 5-9 will be enrolled in elementary education .they will also revise the curriculum and stress will be given to teachers training, and improvement in the management and supervision system will be made, and same formula will be apply to the existing examination and assessment system.
After the elementary stage we have now the secondary education, the unique stuff in the secondary stage is that, it insisted that there shall be one model school that will be setup in the district level and the participation level rate will be increased from 31 % to 48% by 2002-03.one sharp feature of this stage is about the Technical Education that will will be made to the part of secondary education and curricula will be updated for particular task. Multiple text books will be introduced at secondary school level. One of the novel things in the policy is about training of secondary teachers through workshops and refreshment cources.Both the formal and non means shall be used to provide increased opportunities of in-service training to the working teachers.
The commission also gave importance to the technical and vocational education in country for producing trained manpower. But we see that the Government has been unsuccessful while chasing target. Reasons are several and they cant be throughly explained. Basic the commission failed to recognized that where world is going on? and on what lines the Asian tigers working? ,as usual ,few discipline in science and technologies were given importance. Telecommunication progress mean the advancement in service sector of telecom . No technology related to matter has been transferred to Pakistan and no assistance to universities provided as compare to china, India and Malaysia ,where not only micro processors and hardwares are being assembled but also technologies has been also provided to these particular countries.
Even though the most progressive technical industry of Pakistan that is Automobiles have not been provided fully assistance and technology to local market. The main CEO is pertaining to manufacturing country. No collaboration to any technical and engineering university has been made.
Increasing fuel prices and high rise car price stresses the manufacture to manufacture the nano car for common man as have been done in India by Tata group. Where local universities and foreign collaboration made it happen. I think our policy makers are not technical they just makes policy for groups and classes and for their own sake.
Higher education stage:
Three major successful and last stages are implementation of policy about the HE and HEC, and also they stressed the need to develop the information technology structure or the library and documentation structure to safe Your heritage and archives. They are claimed to be competively successful phases for the policy makers and government all because of “Dr Ata-ul-rehamn” self interest. HEC a successor of university grant commission in his guidance lead this phase in right direction. And throughout they enhanced the standard of Higher education .That worked for producing quality scholars; PhD’s and they also worked to ban plagiarism. This stage insist that “access to the Higher Education shall be expanded to at least 5% of the age group 17-23 by the year 2010.Merit shall be the only criterion for entry to the higher Education . Degree colleges shall have to affiliate with any recognized Pakistani university or degree awarding institution for Examinination and award for degrees”
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8625 Spring 2022-23
Q.4 Critically analyze the history rational and policies of higher education system in Australia. .
Recent developments in Australian university sector offer a good opportunity to test the above-mentioned hypothesis. The country has experienced nearly 30% growth of domestic enrolment in undergraduate university studies between 2009 and 2015. Previous analyses of horizontal inequalities in Australia took a snapshot of a single cohort and did not consider the developments after the recent expansion. This article aims to fill this gap by using the data from the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth and comparing cohorts which turned 15 y
Free AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8625 Spring 2022-23
ears old in 2003, 2006 and 2009. I use multinomial logistic regression models.
Additionally, I ask to what extent the observed effects of socioeconomic backgrounds on the distribution of individuals between (1) elite universities, (2) non-elite universities, (3) non-university tertiary institutions and (4) not participating can be explained by academic ability? For that, I will decompose the socioeconomic background effects into those which can be attributed to academic ability at the age of 15, and those which cannot. This explanatory endeavour will help formulating policy recommendations as to preferable timing and form of intervention that could weaken inequalities resulting from the role of tertiary education in social stratification.
Australian tertiary educationFootnote2 is a high participation system, consisting of formally homogeneous universities which issue primarily higher education degrees and the heterogeneous sector of non-university institutions (technical and further education (TAFE)). TAFEs provide vocationally oriented post-compulsory education, but also issue bachelor degrees. Universities operate on a centrally regulated quasi-market and their domestic teaching activity is largely financed from federal sources. They compete for students, whose financial contribution in a form of state-subsidised tuition feesFootnote3 is fixed (it differs across fields of study but not across universities), which tames the system stratification. However, the hierarchy between institutions is clear and largely path-dependent. There are eight old universitiesFootnote4 (“the Group of Eight” coalition, hereafter referred to as “Go8”) which clearly stand out in terms of resource endowment, research intensity, size and comprehensive range of qualifications they offer, and ability to select their students. Their special status is underlined in the studies on university segments (Williams 2007; Marginson 2016). Furthermore, the literature on undergraduate early salary premiums on the Australian labour market (Birch et al. 2009; Carroll et al. 2014; Cherastidtham and Norton 2014; Lee 2014) provides positive, although weak, evidence for the advantaged position of elite university graduates in the early stages of professional careers. Considering the representative sample of population aged 25–59, the analysis of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey (HILDA) shows that in 2012, the Go8 graduates recorded significantly higher salary premium than the graduates of other, non-technological universities, with some variation related to gender (Wilkins 2015, Table 7.4, p. 97). These gaps might be underestimated due to uncontrolled differences in the composition of fields of study and in the graduates’ employment status across the university categories (ibid., p. 73).
In 2009, following the prescriptions of the Review of Australian Higher Education: Final Report (“the Bradley review”; Bradley 2008), the Labour Government undertook a course towards transition from mass to universal access to higher education. It endorsed a target of 40% of 25–34-year-old individuals having at least a bachelor degree by 2025. This was to be achieved primarily by uncapping the number of state-financed study places that could be offered by universities (and thus creating the quasi-demand-driven system; see Gale 2015). As reported by King and James (2013), enrolments had been increasing in response to the reform already before it was officially implemented in 2012. Larkins (2015) evaluated university enrolment patterns between 2009 and 2013. The growth of enrolments has been lower, at 14.3%, in Go8, while the total growth rate was 26.6%. Neither was the growth equally distributed among non-elite universities. King and James (2013) point out that it was mostly the non-elite sector in big metropolitan cities that has achieved their preferred enrolment by retaining highly qualified students and increasing the uptake of those with medium-level entrance qualifications. While the university segment was experiencing a steady, fast expansion, the system has become more stratified because of the rise in status of selective institutions (Marginson 2016) and the proportion of new domestic bachelor enrolments at Go8 decreasing from 25.4 to 22.9% (Larkins 2015). For that, one would particularly expect deterioration in social access to elite universities.
A number of research on inequalities in tertiary education participation in Australia reached conclusions similar to findings in other countries. The earlier sector expansion has not resulted in a significant reduction of class inequalities in educational attainment on the tertiary level (Chesters and Watson 2013; Le et al. 2011). Chesters (2015) found that although that expansion has reduced inequality to some extent, having a university-educated parent still determines the propensity of university graduation. Lee (2014) shows that both parental occupation and education were strong predictors of the attainment of a bachelor’s or higher degree before the expansion, and that that individual’s family backgrounds significantly predicted the prestige of students’ university, but not the field of study. But Gale and Parker (2013) argue that students from low-socioeconomic status families tend to enrol both in some less prestigious fields and in low-status institutions. The type of secondary school attended also matters in Australia (Marjoribanks 2005; Chesters 2015). According to Marginson (2016: p. 151), private secondary schools, attended by approximately 40% of students, play an important role in reproducing social inequality, as “the leading private schools, which charge high fees and are dominated by affluent families, are effective in placing students in sought-after university courses”. Gemici et al. (2013) found the achievement in secondary school to be more important than social class effects at the point of entry to higher education. Similarly, Cardak and Ryan (2009) argue that interventions at the last year of secondary school may not have the intended impact due to the primary importance of previous achievement. Eligible students from low and high socioeconomic backgrounds are equally likely to attend university. However, eligibility itself has the positive socioeconomic gradient.
AIOU Solved Assignment Code 8625 Autumn 2022-23
Q.5 Discuss the higher education system in Australia. Highlight the implication if this system for improving of Higher Education system of Pakistan.
Higher education in Australia is provided at universities, junior colleges, colleges of technology and special training schools and community colleges. Of these four types of institutions, only universities and junior colleges are strictly considered postsecondary education providers The modern Australia higher education system has undergone numerous changes since the Meiji period and was largely modeled after Western countries such as Germany, France, Britain, and the United States with traditional Australia pedagogical elements to create a unique Australia model to serve its national needs. The Australia higher education system differs from higher education in most other countries in many significant ways. Key differences include the method of acceptance, which relies almost entirely on one or two tests, as opposed to the usage of GPAs or percentages or other methods of assessment and evaluation of prospective applicants used in Western countries. As students only have one chance to take this test each year, there is an enormous amount of pressure to do well on this test, and the majority of senior high school education is dedicated to doing well on this single test. Australia students are faced with immense pressure to succeed academically from their parents, teachers, peers, and society. This is largely a result of a society that has long placed a great amount of importance on higher education, and a system that places all of its weight upon a single examination that has significant life-long consequences towards one’s socioeconomic status, promising marriage prospects, and a respectable white-collar professional career path.
Another major difference is graduate school, as very few non-science undergraduate students go to graduate school in Australia. This is because graduate schools for non-science students are generally considered useful only to those who want to work in academia. This has changed a little since the turn of the 21st century. The law has changed to require those who want to become lawyers to attend a graduate school the Australia government has designated a law school. Previously, lawyers only had to pass the bar exam, which undergraduate students could take. Major universities have also opened business schools, though few Australia students attend these because most Australia corporations still don’t regard graduate students as much more qualified than undergraduate students. For this reason, they are mostly attended by foreign students from neighboring East Asian countries, particularly South Korea, Taiwan, and China.
As the Australia economy is largely scientific and technological based, the labor market demands people who have achieved some form of higher education, particularly related to science and engineering in order to gain a competitive edge when searching for employment. According to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), the percentage of Australia going on to any higher education institution in the eighteen-year-old cohort was 80.6 percent, with 52.6 percent of students going on to a university, 4.7 percent to a junior college, 0.9 percent to a college of technology and the remaining 22.4 percent attending a correspondence school, the University of the Air or a specialized training college.
It is commonly perceived that education is the most powerful weapon in alleviating poverty, elevating economic growth, producing skilled human resource, creating a healthy and enlightened social environment and making self-sufficient nations. Poverty and education are paradoxically related to each other: if one is improved, the other is decreased.
In a socially, economically, religiously and culturally diverse state like Pakistan, higher education institutions and universities, imparting education and conducting cutting edge research, are the central mechanisms that can raise the declining social and economic infrastructure of the country. Since the 2000s, there has been rapid growth in these institutions and universities across Pakistan as is evident from the sharp rise in their numbers from just 32 in 2001 to 160 at present.
Pakistan, despite rapid growth in the education sector during the past decade, suffers from severe challenges in its educational development. These challenges include lack of access to higher education for the majority of its youth, results oriented standards of pedagogical techniques, brain drain of qualified human resource and lack of adaptability to changing paradigms of academic research. Out of a population of 190 million, only five percent of them have access to university level education. It is worth mentioning that, by the end of 2022, Pakistan needs 36 million new jobs if the economy grows up to six percent annually. Therefore, it is the premier duty of all national universities to produce graduates who fulfill the criteria of the national, social and economic needs of the country. In this regard, the role of career counseling and placement offices at the university level becomes very important.
In the 21st century, the paradigm of universities has shifted from traditional aspects of teaching and learning towards building communities, economies and patterns of leadership. Education, either basic or higher, plays a key role in the development of human capital that subsequently brings about the establishment of sound economies and harmonious communities. There is an immediate need to initiate radical educational reforms so that these challenges can be addressed proactively. The following is an exercise in this regard.
To begin with, the ministry of education, ministry of finance, planning commission, standing committees on basic and technical education and the higher education commission of Pakistan should assist these universities, both public and private, in establishing on-campus university-community partnership centres. These centres should work on the pattern of think tanks and should devise mechanisms to address dominant social problems, prepare modules and schemes for the outreach of educational facilities and bridging linkages with communities for sharing of knowledge. Secondly, since Pakistan is a traditional society with different demographical characteristics, whereby more than 30 percent of the population lives below the poverty line, and more than 600,000 young graduates are adding to unemployment every year, these higher learning institutions and universities should develop terms of reference (ToRs) to provide financial assistance to talented individuals who otherwise cannot afford university education.
Thirdly, to streamline and ensure effective utilization of public funds allocated for development of higher education in Pakistan by the concerned commissions and universities, the concerned ministries and planning commissions should primarily focus on building grass-root level education in primary schools, especially in Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Fourth, universities should focus on creating an entrepreneurial culture among their graduates. They should produce job creators rather than producing job seekers. This can be attained through the establishment of effective business incubation centres, encouraging partnerships between industry and academia and placing career counselling offices that should work on intellectual and professional development of the graduates during the course of their studies in order to prepare them today for the challenges of tomorrow.
Fifth, education never means to earn; it means to spend. The best way to spend is spending on education and research that later on addresses the social, political, environmental and economic problems of Pakistan. Universities can play a vital role in this regard through fostering reciprocal partnerships with other educational organisations and community development centres to identify real life problems. Community development participation should be made mandatory for teachers and students at the university level. If the prestigious Australian Endeavour Award can assign 35 percent of its total evaluation marks towards the contribution of individual applicants towards community services than why can students at our universities in Pakistan not be prepared on similar lines? Moreover, since Pakistan has always been a victim of natural calamities such as floods and earthquakes, it will be beneficial if various emergency training programmes and courses related to disaster management are incorporated in the curriculum.
Last but not least, the role of university managers and leaders is very crucial in steering our universities in the right direction. The Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HECP) can, for example, initiate university leadership and administration programmes for capacity building of university administrators in collaboration with top ranking educational schools around the world. Popenici rightly said that “an institution is not a sum of disciplined ‘soldiers’ working on the assembly line designed to deliver skills for a set of jobs (that may be gone when students graduate). A university is responsible to develop the whole thinking person, to expand horizons and instill the love for learning in individuals and build democratic citizenship with engaged and informed citizens who have the power to make democracy work. A university is also asked to cultivate imagination and creativity, defend civilisation and create new knowledge, act as a forum where free and responsible minds can ‘question the unquestionable’ for the benefit of our societies. Universities have the power to provide innovative solutions, but when tools of a successful army are used in this institution, results are equal to those imagined if we promote debate groups for soldiers when they are in the line of fire.”
In summary, it can safely be concluded that the development of societies and economies is interlinked with the growth of education. It is the order of the day that quality of education at every stage be improved to help lay a solid foundation for the advancement of studies in basic sciences, engineering disciplines, agriculture extension, medical and some other important areas that are needed for the economic growth and reconstruction of Pakistan. As the report published by Credit Suisse in February 2013 indicates, “The rising trend of youth unemployment around the world threatens not just current economic growth but also political stability and the potential demographic dividend.” As a result, universities now have to re-think and re-design their policies for the uplift of the socio-economic situation in Pakistan. Without quality education that critically prepares a young mind to face and provide solutions to varied types of problems, Pakistan or any other developing state will only suffer socio-economically, politically and strategically.